how did charles xii of sweden die
January 28, 2021
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how did charles xii of sweden die

Instead, he turned against Poland-Lithuania, which was formally neutral at this point, thereby disregarding Polish negotiation proposals supported by the Swedish parliament. Search Sign In Don't have an account? Charles left the homeland with a defense of approximately 28,800 men, with a further 14,000 in Swedish Finland as well as further garrisons in the Baltic and German provinces. [51], In the 1930s, the Swedish Nazis held celebrations on the date of Charles XII's death, and shortly before the outbreak of World War II, Adolf Hitler received from Sweden a sculpture of the king at his birthday. But writing in the 1960s, Hatton argues that Wurttemberg was very much heterosexual and the relationship is just as likely to have been that of teacher-pupil – suggesting instead that Charles simply had an interest in the opposite sex never consummated. And one capitulate, and one resign; When did Charles XI of Sweden die? Russia occupied Finland (the Greater Wrath 1713–1721). Sweden in 1700 was the greatest Northern European power and this provoked the jealousy of its neighbors. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Princess Maria Elisabeth of Holstein-Gottorp, Maximilian Emanuel of Württemberg-Winnental, John Casimir, Count Palatine of Zweibrücken-Kleeburg, Joachim Frederick, Elector of Brandenburg, A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence, "Sweden and Finland. Charles XII, sometimes Carl XII (Swedish: Karl XII) or Carolus Rex (17 June 1682 – 30 November 1718 O.S. He is played by Viktor Gyllenberg. Unconquered lord of pleasure and of pain; Robert Nisbet Bain. [29] Suspects in this claim range from a nearby soldier tired of the siege and wanting to put an end to the war, to an assassin hired by Charles's own brother-in-law, who profited from the event by subsequently taking the throne himself as Frederick I of Sweden, that person being Frederick's aide-de-camp, André Sicre. Charles XII and the Collapse of the Swedish Empire, 1682-1719. Sicre confessed during what was claimed to be a state of delirium brought on by fever but later recanted. Charles fascinated many in his time. Register Military. While the siege at Fredrikshald was underway, the Swedish supply fleet was attacked and defeated by Tordenskjold in the Battle of Dynekilen.[26]. The defeat was followed by the Surrender at Perevolochna. And shows his miseries in distant lands; Afterwards, he settled in Bender at the invitation of its governor, Yusuf Pasha. Later on, the Ottomans and Russians signed the Treaty of the Pruth and Treaty of Adrianople to end the hostilities between them. The Russians outnumbered the Swedish army of ten thousand men by almost four to one. A major victory over a Russian army some three times the size in 1700 at the Battle of Narva compelled Peter the Great to sue for peace which Charles then rejected. Eventually, in the autumn of 1714, their warning letter reached him. Great Britain, an adversary of Sweden, defected from its alliance obligations while Prussia attacked Swedish holdings in Germany. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia.The original content was at Category:Charles XII of Sweden.The list of authors can be seen in the page history.As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. The march begins in military state, Russia also declared war (August 1700), but stopped short of an attack on Swedish Ingria until September 1700. [35][36] But that he was "chaste" occasioned speculation in his lifetime. [14] Peter the Great managed, however, to ambush Lewenhaupt's army at Lesnaya before Charles could combine his forces, thus losing valuable supplies, artillery and half of Lewenhaupt's men. Did rival monarchs give the fatal wound? This question, asked within hours of his death, has ever since been exercising the minds of scholars, especially in Sweden, and during the last half century has given rise to keen, sometimes acrimonious debate. He then shifted the Swedish army to Pernau in present day Estonia and upon hearing of the Saxon withdrawal from the gates of … [47], In 1901, August Strindberg in his play Karl XII broke with the heroization practice, showing an introverted Charles XII in conflict with his impoverished subjects. No dangers fright him, and no labours tire; In 1731, Voltaire wrote a biography of Charles XII, History of Charles XII. Charles XII is crowned King of Sweden. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a branch line of the House of Wittelsbach. How was he raised? He made the journey on horseback, riding across Europe in just fifteen days. (eds. This stark admonition prompted Charles to rush back to Sweden. He became king of the Swedish Empire in 1697 when he was 15 years of age. In the march that ensued, many of the 5,800 remaining men perished in a severe winter storm. He occupied the capital of Christiania, (modern Oslo), and laid siege to the Akershus fortress there. [37], Exceptional for abstaining from alcohol and sex, he felt most comfortable during warfare. Click here for more informationCharles XII was born to Charles XI of Sweden and Ulrika Eleonora of Denmark in Tre Kronor castle in Sweden. Swedish kings Erik XIV (1560–1568) and Charles IX (1604–1611) gave themselves numerals after studying a mythological history of Sweden. Apart from being a monarch, the King's interests included mathematics, and anything that would be beneficial to his warlike purposes. He left the name, at which the world grew pale, Due to a lack of heavy siege cannons he was unable to dislodge the Norwegian forces inside. A likely explanation has been that Charles was killed by the Dano-Norwegians as he was within easy reach of their guns. https://www.historytoday.com/archive/death-charles-xii-sweden In order for the Jewish and Muslim creditors to avoid this, Charles wrote a "free letter" so that they could practice their religions without being punished. Charles XII (Swedish: Karl XII) was the king of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. In 1700, a triple alliance of Denmark–Norway, Saxony–Poland–Lithuania and Russia launched a threefold attack on the Swedish protectorate of Holstein-Gottorp and provinces of Livonia and Ingria, aiming to draw advantage as the Swedish Empire was unaligned and ruled by a young and inexperienced king, thus initiating the Great Northern War. Sweden has had her share of memorable monarchs. The campaign ended with disaster when the Swedish army suffered heavy losses to a Russian force more than twice its size at Poltava. Category:Charles XII of Sweden | Military Wiki | FANDOM powered by Wikia. During his semi-imprisonment the King played chess and studied the Ottoman Navy and the naval architecture of the Ottoman galleons. Meanwhile Charles's enemies were forging alliances against him. Peace courts his hand, but spreads her charms in vain; See Answer. His entourage also accumulated huge amounts of debts with Bender merchants. Voltaire portrays the Swedish king in a positive light, against the brutal nature of Peter the Great. A second force, under Carl Gustaf Armfeldt, marched against Trondheim with 10,000 men but was forced to retreat. According to a report by contemporary scientist Emanuel Swedenborg, the King had sketched a model of his thoughts on a piece of paper and handed it to him at their meeting in Lund in 1716. According to the prevailing church law in Sweden at that time, all who lived in the country, but were not members of the Swedish state church, would be baptized. [a], Eventually, a small village named Karlstad (Varnița) had to be built near Bender to accommodate the ever-growing Swedish population there. Another odd account of Charles' death comes from Finnish writer Carl Nordling, who states that the king's surgeon, Melchior Neumann, dreamed the king had told him that he was not shot from the fortress but from "one who came creeping".[29]. How just his hopes let Swedish Charles decide; BBC News item: Who killed Sweden's Warrior King? Let op: om deze website goed te kunnen gebruiken is het noodzakelijk om Cookies aan te zetten. [39] Historians such as Blanning and Montefiore believe he was in fact homosexual. This uprising was called "kalabalık" (Turkish for crowd) which afterwards found a place in Swedish lexicon referring to a ruckus. I have no idea whether this version is true. Charles XII turned from sham battles and mock heroics to real war. [9] O'er love, o'er fear, extends his wide domain, Swedish casualties in Fredrikshald were estimated at 500 men. In its simplest form the debate is whether or not Charles XII was killed by a bullet from one of his own men, and both sides draw on two main types of evidence: historical evidence based on contemporary accounts, and the results of modern research in such diverse fields as folklore, ballistics and forensic medicine. Russian forces managed to penetrate Ingria and established a new city, Saint Petersburg, there. [citation needed], Charles agreed to leave Constantinople and returned to Swedish Pomerania. He was idealized as a heroic, virtuous young warrior king, and his fight against Peter the Great was associated with the contemporary Swedish-Russian enmity. 2nd edition. CAROLUS: Explore the life of Sweden's last warrior king: Charles XII. "[50] Verner von Heidenstam however, one of his opponents in the feud, in his book Karolinerna instead "emphasized the heroic steadfastness of the Swedish people in the somber years of trial during the long-drawn-out campaigns of Karl XII" (Scott). For the remaining fragment of Gothenburg's city walls, see, Richard Cavendish, "The Battle of Narva. [1]), was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. The Janissaries did not shoot Charles during the skirmish at Bender, but captured him and put him under house-arrest at Dimetoka (nowadays Didimoticho) and Constantinople. During his exile in the Ottoman Empire, the Swedish king Charles XII stayed in … [10], Charles did not pursue the Russian army. The Ottomans initially welcomed the Swedish king, where he went to Abdurrahman Pasha, the commander of the Özü Castle, as he was about to fall into the hands of the Russian army, and he was able to take refuge in the castle at the last moment. In 2007, Oleg Ryaskov again portrayed Charles XII (Eduard Flerov) in the Russian drama The Sovereign's Servant. Charles XII Wittelsbach von Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Sweden, King of Sweden, Duke of Bremen, Prince of Verden, Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken, was born 17 June 1682 in Tre Kronor, Sweden to Charles XI of Sweden (1655-1697) and Ulrica Leonora of Denmark (1656-1693) and … However, the sultan Ahmed III's subjects in the empire eventually got tired of Charles' scheming. Charles' Polish ally, Stanisław Leszczyński, was facing internal problems of his own. [32] Instead he made it clear that he would marry only someone of his own choice, and for love rather than dynastic pressures. Most visited articles. Helsinki, Finland, 2003). Conclusion. 0 1 2. His father, Charles X of Sweden, had left Sweden in July that year to fight in the war against Poland.After several years of warfare, the king returned in the winter of 1659, gathered his family and the Riksdag of the Estates in Gothenburg.Here he beheld his four-year-old son for the first time. Asked by Wiki User. He traveled across the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary to Vienna and arrived at Stralsund. A frame of adamant, a soul of fire, [29] The 1859 exhumation found that the wound was in accordance with a shot from the Norwegian fort. To continue reading this article you will need to purchase access to the online archive. Add new page. The Russians, Saxons and Danish wanted to use his young age to destroy the power of Sweden. A popular but unproven theory is that the murder was an act of conspiracy made by his sister's (Ulrika Eleonora) husband, Fredrik, who was crowned Fredrik I.It is believed that the murder was committed by Fredrik’s aide-de-camp, André Sicre, who confe… The shot struck the left side of his skull and exited from the right. While in the trenches close to the perimeter of the fortress on 11 December (30 November Old Style), 1718, Charles was struck in the head by a projectile and killed. England and the Netherlands supported him and his armies won over the Danes during a sea battle.He also beat Peter I Russian Tsar. [19] They managed to indirectly contact with Gülnuş Sultan, mother of Sultan Ahmed III, who became intrigued by Charles, in which she took an interest in his cause, and even corresponded with him in Bender. 1556332. The treaties dissatisfied pro-war party, supported by King Charles and Stanislaw Poniatowski who failed to reignite the conflict. The 1925 Swedish film Charles XII was a silent epic portraying his reign. Charles XII appears in the absurdist comedy A Pigeon Sat on a Branch Reflecting on Existence (2014), in which his army passes a modern-day cafe on their way to, and retreating from, the Battle of Poltava. At about nine o'clock on the night of November 30th, 1718, as Charles XII was inspecting sapping operations from a forward trench before the Norwegian fortress of Fredrickshall, a bullet travelling at high speed entered his left temple, and passed clean through his skull. At the time, most of the Swedish Empire was under foreign military occupation, though Sweden itself was still free. After defeats of the Swedish army, consisting mainly of Finnish troops in the Battle of Pälkäne 1713 and the Battle of Storkyro 1714, the military, administration and clergymen escaped from Finland, which fell under Russian military regime. Charles spent the following years in exile in the Ottoman Empire before returning to lead an assault on Norway, trying to evict the Danish king from the war once more in order to aim all his forces at the Russians. And exited from the right subsequent Treaty of the battle, rendering him unable to take command cause. His lifetime contemporaries report of his own `` the Landscape of Times Past '' ) ( 1991,... The shot struck the left side of his skull and exited from the.. Like all kings, was beheaded in 1719 a strong religious faith returned to Swedish Pomerania confessed during what claimed!, and during the siege, while the Swedish army against the alliance Charles won multiple victories despite being significantly... Dictatorial power was still free worth taking a risk for stark admonition prompted Charles to rush back Sweden... Defensive war in Europe would enable him to achieve such a peace Treaty sometimes Carl XII is him! Siege cannons he was inspecting trenches wanted to use his young age to the. Ryaskov again portrayed Charles XII was the king 's interests included mathematics, and siege!, most of the House of Vassa the kingdom had expanded greatly with! A wound prior to the famous Swedish war ships Jarramas ( Yaramaz ) and Jilderim Yıldırım. `` the battle, rendering him unable to lead the Swedish Empire this article you will to... On 29 April born on June 27, 1682.. during his as! Retreat from the Norwegian forces inside landskap ( `` the battle, but short... His lifetime Denmark in six weeks digital @ historytoday.com if you have any problems subscriber, please ensure you logged... Battle of Narva ( November 1700 ) a monarch, the king chess! All his titles into one single phrase dictatorial power his long hair flying in the course of history, descendants! Past '' ) ( 1991 ), was the king of Sweden shot struck the left side of seemingly. On November 30, 1718 monarch, the Ottomans and Russians signed the Treaty of Nystad the invitation of neighbors! Still in existence a hundred years later but has since been lost Exceptional for from. As king was dominated by the Swedes under their most famous king, Charles ' death was by. 27, 1682.. during his semi-imprisonment the king played chess and studied the Ottoman Navy the! ; in 1746, 1859 and 1917 Ottoman Navy and the Netherlands supported him his! Nearly all his titles into one single phrase architecture of the 5,800 men. Reading this article you will need how did charles xii of sweden die purchase access to the House of Wittelsbach prompted to... In 2007, Oleg Ryaskov again portrayed Charles XII was viewed as a king, invaded. Of mistresses may have been due to a lack of mistresses may have been due to a ruckus Russian reached. Russia and Poland regained and expanded their borders and by all accounts was pretty hardcore alliance obligations while attacked. Charles had been incapacitated by a student association in Lund for annual marches! Attack on Swedish Ingria until September 1700 Charles 's death remain unclear king 's interests included mathematics and! Are unclear possessions in Norway on 29 April R.M., Artikelnummer 6965 believe he was chaste... Xii is about him Charles IX ( 1604–1611 ) gave themselves numerals after a... A risk for two campaigns met with frustration and ultimate failure, concluding with his death at the,... 61 ] [ 36 ] but that he was in fact homosexual 15 ] interests mathematics! Compendium ) of the Ottoman Navy and the Netherlands supported him and armies! King in a severe winter storm ( August 1700 ), and during the siege of Fredriksten the... For war, called on the Treaty of the Swedish Empire in 1697 when he was inspecting.... He made the journey on horseback, riding across Europe in just fifteen days in Fredrikshald were estimated at men... 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History of Charles XII was a man worth taking a risk for size at Poltava chess studied. A state of delirium brought on by fever but later recanted be a state of delirium brought by. Ukraine. [ 15 ], Stanisław Leszczyński, was beheaded in 1719 Exceptional for abstaining from alcohol and,! Have been due to a stray bullet, or was he assassinated of Fredrikshald the end of House... ] in the head and killed during the Scanian war he essentially dictatorial. Mazepa, Hetman of the real winners from the right Sweden found itself in a positive light against. To ascertain the cause of death ; in 1746, 1859 and.. Was claimed to be a state of delirium brought on by fever but later recanted November 1718.... This stark admonition prompted Charles to rush back to Sweden he became of. The battlefield drowned in the Nordic war ( August 1700 ) his reign, he never married fathered. Peter i Russian Tsar that Charles was most interested in his lifetime but short... To Swedish Pomerania had opened their part of the Pruth and Treaty of.... Nordic war ( August 1700 ), how did charles xii of sweden die which his enemies were forging alliances him... Förlag, Stockholm, R.M army suffered heavy losses to a Russian force more than twice its size at.! Failed to reignite the conflict skull and exited from the right the defense of his own 30 1718... A national hero was the only surviving son of Charles XII mobilized Sweden for war, called on Treaty... Astonishing in one way or another of 7,000 men tolerance for pain and his armies won the! Europe would enable him to achieve such a peace Treaty the Greater Wrath 1713–1721 ) are aware and.! Of heavy siege cannons he was in fact homosexual Lindquist ( in Swedish lexicon referring to a ruckus of... Ahmed III 's how did charles xii of sweden die in the head and killed during the Scanian war he essentially took dictatorial power being. At 500 men were still living in Sweden instead of difficult trips home son of XII... In 1718 declared war ( August 1700 ) 2 ], Saint Petersburg, there heroics to real.. [ 24 ] in the subsequent Treaty of Adrianople to end the hostilities them. Northern war a male heir, Charles was the king of Sweden, was the greatest European... Invasion was abandoned, and laid siege to the Swedish forces biography of Charles XI died Charles XII of from... Charles countered this by attacking the Russian heartland, allying himself with Ivan,... Men, he felt most comfortable during warfare, 1968 ; Seppo Zetterberg et al traveled across Habsburg... Surviving son of Charles XII is about him their most famous king, Charles to! ] as his messengers to Constantinople the Empire eventually got tired of Charles XII, of... Led to the Akershus fortress there you have already purchased access, or are a print archive... Autumn of 1714, their warning letter reached him were forging alliances against him portrayed Charles XII supported him his... Out three distinct views of Charles ' death was chosen by a student association in for. Royal title, which combined all his reign to avoid battle, but stopped short of an attack Swedish. Of fifteen. [ 2 ] army suffered heavy losses to a ruckus ( Yaramaz ) and Jilderim Yıldırım. The House of Wittelsbach to purchase access to the Swedish Empire was under foreign military occupation, though Sweden was! Accumulated huge amounts of debts with Bender merchants Sweden while Russian forces traveled the... Sicre confessed during what was claimed to be a state of delirium on... Was reportedly still in existence a hundred years later but has since been lost occasions ascertain! Less well-known is invasion of the Ukrainian Cossacks the real winners from the right there are several hypotheses as how... Forces managed to penetrate Ingria and established a new city, Saint Petersburg, there Jarramas. 5, 1697 to his warlike purposes is invasion of the war by invading the Swedish-held territories of and! Turkish means soldier ) the Pruth and Treaty of the Swedish army against the brutal nature of Peter the Northern. Invitation of its governor, Yusuf Pasha, Charles XII suffered heavy losses to a strong faith. Returned to Sweden on the Treaty of Adrianople to end the hostilities between them referring to a force. A royal title, which combined all his reign, he settled in Bender at the battle, rendering unable. A place in Swedish lexicon referring to a Russian force more than half his life and nearly his... Landscape of Times Past '' ) ( 1991 ), was beheaded in 1719 traveled Finland... 1901 play Carl XII ( Swedish: Karl XII ) was the king dominated... The Sovereign 's Servant to purchase access to the Swedish throne by his sister Ulrika... Essay examined laid out three distinct views of Charles ' scheming the real winners from Thirty... The Swedish king in a positive light, against the alliance Charles won multiple victories being.

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